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Solving Systems of Equations
This unit introduces how to systematically solve a system of equations, namely linear equations. Examples of nonlinear systems, including systems of 3 unknowns will be of emphasis.

Graphs of Trigonometric Functions
The unit focuses primarily on how to graph periodic sinusoidal functions, and how to identify features of a waveform to produce an equation by inspection.

Polar Coordinate Functions
An introduction to the polar coordinate system.

Variation

Complex Numbers

Exponents and Radicals
This unit is an extension of what was introduced in Math 1131. To learn how to work with radicals, knowing your exponent laws in crucial. Hence, this unit begins with a thorough review.

Logarithmic Functions
This chapter introduces you to exponential functions, and how they can be solved using logarithms.

Trigonometric Identities and Equations

Analytic Geometry
Writing Sinusoidal Equations from Graphs
The final section of this chapter involves making an equation from a waveform. In other words, you’ll be shown a wave, and you’ll be expected to identify its amplitude, period, and phaseshift, then use this information to generate an equation using one of the templates shown below. Since a sine wave can technically be written in terms of cosine, and viceversa, the question will specify whether to write it in terms of sine or cosine.
 y = a⋅sin(bx + c) + d
 y = a⋅cos(bx + c) + d
The easiest of the three properties stated above to find is the amplitude ‘a’; it is the distance from the center of the wave to the ycoordinate of the maximum or minimum point. To find the period, you must locate the start and end points of a cycle. You then calculate the difference between their xcoordinates, where the period = x_{final} – x_{initial}. The period can be used to find the factor ‘b’ using the formula shown below. Lastly, the phaseshift can be found by visual inspection. Simply locate the distance between where the wave begins to the vertical axis, where x = 0. You can use the phaseshift that you find, along with the value for ‘b’ found in the step prior, to find ‘c’ using the formula below. Keep in mind that reflections are difficult to interpret if you’re given multiple cycles of a waveform. If you’re given a single cycle and you’re told there’s a reflection, ‘a’ can be made negative.
The first two videos caters to creating sinusoidal functions with cosine.
What’s interesting about the answer found – and generally for all equations you find for these types of questions – is that more than one equation can represent the waveform. That is, you can have variations of ‘c’ by adding or subtracting the period with the phaseshift. Take, for example, the equation that was found above: y = 5·cos(x – 3π/5). The period was found to be 2π, and the phaseshift 3π/5.
Adding (or subtracting) 2π to the phaseshift gives a new phaseshift:
$\mathrm{New}\mathrm{Phase}\mathrm{Shift}=\frac{3\mathrm{\pi}}{5}\pm 2\mathrm{\pi}=\overline{)\frac{13\mathrm{\pi}}{5}\mathrm{or}\u2013\frac{7\mathrm{\pi}}{5}}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}$Solving for ‘c’ once more using phaseshift = –c / b, gives you a new variant of your original equation:
 y = 5⋅cos(x – 13π/5)
 y = 5⋅cos(x + 7π/5)
The reason why this works is because choosing the phaseshift is somewhat of a subjective decision, especially if you’re given multiple cycles of the wave.
The next two videos show a second example of a cosine equation being created, while the final video shows a sine equation.