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Measurements
An introduction to numerical computation. Emphasis is placed on scientific and engineering notation, the rule of significant figures, and converting between SI and Imperial units.

Fractions, Percentage, Ratios and Proportion
Emphasis here is placed on understanding fractions, percent, and using ratios to compare quantities and set up proportions to solve problems.

Introduction to Algebra

Factoring

Solving Equations

Functions and Graphs

Geometry
This unit focuses on analyzing and understand the characteristics of various shapes, both 2D and 3D.
 Identify, measure, and calculate different types of straight lines and angles
 Calculate the interior angles of polygons
 Solve problems involving a variety of different types of triangles
 Calculate the area of a variety of different types of quadrilaterals
 Solve problems involving circles
 Calculate the areas and volumes of different solids
Addition and Subtraction of Algebraic Expressions
In order to add or subtract polynomials, you need to know how to recognize like terms. Like terms have exactly the same variables raised to exactly the same exponents. Let’s look at a few examples where we identify liketerms:
Identify the like terms in each set:
a) 3x, 5y, 4x
Answer3x and 4x
[collapse]b) 4x², 5x, 12x²
Answer4x² and 12x²
[collapse]c) 2b, –3a²b, 4, a²b², –10
Answer4 and 10
[collapse]d) –2xy, 3x, 11yx
Answer2xy and 11yx
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Now let’s try to simplify an expression by combining like terms. To combine like terms (by addition or subtraction), you focus only on the coefficients of those terms. Let’s look at a few examples:
Combining like terms found in brackets
Sometimes you’ll encounter terms that are placed within parentheses, such as in the example below:
$(2x+y){\mathbf{+}}(3x\u20132y)\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}$If the symbol immediately to the left of the bracket is positive (highlighted in blue), you can remove the parentheses completely:
$2x+y{\mathbf{+}}3x\u20132y\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}$Notice how both sets of brackets were removed. That’s because in front of (2x + y) (while not shown) is also plus. You’ll have to make this assumption each time. The final answer after combining the terms should be:
$5x\u2013y\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}$ Some students may find it helpful to first group the like terms before combining them like this:
${2}{x}{+}{3}{x}{+}{y}{\u2013}{2}{y}$
While this may be visually helpful to some, it’s not required.
The next example demonstrates what to do when the symbol in front of the parenthesis is negative. For example:
$(2x+y){\mathbf{\u2013}}(3x\u20132y)\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}$The example is nearly identical to the previous one except plus is replaced with minus. If you run into this situation, you can remove the brackets, but the sign of each term inside the brackets must change – a technique known as expanding (this will be covered in greater detail next lesson). Therefore, our expression becomes:
$2x+y\u20133x+2y\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}$Notice how 3x was initially positive, it’s now negative; –2y was initially negative, now it’s positive. The brackets around the first two terms were also removed because no symbol was present in front of the bracket. The final answer you should get is:
$\u2013x+3y\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}$Try simplifying the following expressions:
a) –(a + b) – (a + b)
Answer–2a
[collapse]b) (3x – 2y + 4z) – (7y + 2w – 5x) – (3w + 2z + 4y – x)
Answer9x – 13y + 2z – 5w
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