- 42 lessons
- 0 quizzes
- 10 week duration
An introduction to numerical computation. Emphasis is placed on scientific and engineering notation, the rule of significant figures, and converting between SI and Imperial units.
Fractions, Percentage, Ratios and Proportion
Emphasis here is placed on understanding fractions, percent, and using ratios to compare quantities and set up proportions to solve problems.
Introduction to Algebra
Functions and Graphs
This unit focuses on analyzing and understand the characteristics of various shapes, both 2D and 3D.
- Identify, measure, and calculate different types of straight lines and angles
- Calculate the interior angles of polygons
- Solve problems involving a variety of different types of triangles
- Calculate the area of a variety of different types of quadrilaterals
- Solve problems involving circles
- Calculate the areas and volumes of different solids
Ratios and Proportions
As mentioned at the beginning of this unit, there are several ways to represent a fraction, one of which was in ratio form. Just like a fraction, let’s say a over b, a ratio is a comparison of two or more quantities (called terms) that are often expressed in the same units, making the ratio dimensionless – a/b would also be written as a : b or a to b in ratio form. Dimensionless ratios are handy because you do not have to worry about units; some common examples used in mathematics include:
- Trigonometric ratios (sine, cosine, tangent)
- Radian measure of angles
- Gear ratios
Ratios are reduced the same way fractions are. The video below shows two examples of ratios being reduced.
Introduction to Proportions
A proportion is an equation obtained when two ratios are set equal to each other. If the ratio a : b is equal to the ratio c : d, we have the proportion:
a : b = c : d
This reads “the ratio of a to b equals the ratio of c to d” or “a is to b as c is to d.” In fraction form, this is written as:
The two inside terms of a proportion are called the means, and the two outside terms are the extremes. Therefore, b and c are the means, and a and d are the extremes.
When the means of two ratios are the same, let’s say:
a : b = b : d
… b is referred to as the mean proportional or geometric mean. b can be found by rearranging the ratio into:
Once you begin learning algebra, rearranging this ratio on your own will become less of a mystery. For now, all you’re expected to know is how to use it. Use the comment section below to show your proof if you already know how it’s done. Note that the phrase geometric mean is used in place of mean proportional.