All cosine functions start off looking like this without applying any transformation:

The steps to graphing cosine waves is identical to graphing sine waves. A summary of steps as explained in the previous video are written below:

(a) Draw two horizontal lines, each at a distance equal to the amplitude

afrom thexaxis.(b) Draw a vertical line at a distance from the origin equal to the period

P. We now have a rectangle of width P and height 2Ã—a.(c) Subdivide the period

Pinto four equal parts. Label thexaxis at these points, and draw vertical lines through them.(d) Lightly sketch in the

sine/cosinecurve.(e) Shift the curve by the amount of the phase shift.

**Question 1**

**Question 2**