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Posts: 1609
6 years ago
Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life
Chapter 1

*Answers are attached*

Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) A localized group of organisms that belong to the same species is called a      1) _______
A) population.      B) community.      C) ecosystem.      D) family.      E) biosystem.

2) Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and energy. For example, plant chloroplasts convert the energy of sunlight into      2) _______

A) carbon dioxide and water.
B) the energy of motion.
C) the potential energy of chemical bonds.
D) kinetic energy.
E) oxygen.

3) The main source of energy for producers in an ecosystem is      3) _______
A) thermal energy.
C) kinetic energy.
D) light energy.
E) chemical energy.

4) Which of the following types of cells utilize deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as their genetic material but do not have their DNA encased within a nuclear envelope?      4) _______

A) fungi      B) protists      C) animal      D) archaea      E) plant

5) To understand the chemical basis of inheritance, we must understand the molecular structure of DNA. This is an example of the application of which concept to the study of biology?      5) _______

A) reductionism
B) the cell theory
C) feedback regulation
D) emergent properties
E) evolution

6) Once labor begins in childbirth, contractions increase in intensity and frequency until delivery. The increasing labor contractions of childbirth are an example of which type of regulation?      6) _______

A) a bioinformatic system
B) enzymatic catalysis
C) feedback inhibition
D) positive feedback
E) negative feedback

7) When the body's blood glucose level rises, the pancreas secretes insulin and, as a result, the blood glucose level declines. When the blood glucose level is low, the pancreas secretes glucagon and, as a result, the blood glucose level rises. Such regulation of the blood glucose level is the result of      7) _______

A) catalytic feedback.
B) positive feedback.
C) bioinformatic regulation.
D) protein-protein interactions.
E) negative feedback.

8) Which branch of biology is concerned with the naming and classifying of organisms?      8) _______
A) schematic biology
B) taxonomy
C) genomics
D) evolution
E) informatics

9) Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells generally have which of the following features in common?      9) _______
A) a membrane-bounded nucleus
B) linear chromosomes made of DNA and protein
C) flagella or cilia that contain microtubules
D) a cell wall made of cellulose
E) ribosomes

10) Prokaryotes are classified as belonging to two different domains. What are the domains?      10) ______
A) Bacteria and Archaea
B) Archaea and Monera
C) Bacteria and Protista
D) Bacteria and Eukarya
E) Eukarya and Monera

11) Global warming, as demonstrated by observations such as melting of glaciers, increasing CO2 levels, and increasing average ambient temperatures, has already had many effects on living organisms. Which of the following might best offer a solution to this problem?      11) ______

A) Limit the burning of fossil fuels and regulate our loss of forested areas.
B) Continue to measure these and other parameters of the problem.
C) Recycle as much as possible.
D) Increase the abilities of animals to migrate to more suitable habitats.
E) Do nothing; nature will attain its own balance.

12) A water sample from a hot thermal vent contained a single-celled organism that had a cell wall but lacked a nucleus. What is its most likely classification?      12) ______

A) Animalia      B) Eukarya      C) Fungi      D) Archaea      E) Protista

13) A filamentous organism has been isolated from decomposing organic matter. This organism has a cell wall but no chloroplasts. How would you classify this organism?      13) ______

A) domain Eukarya, kingdom Protista
B) domain Bacteria, kingdom Prokaryota
C) domain Eukarya, kingdom Fungi
D) domain Archaea, kingdom Bacteria
E) domain Eukarya, kingdom Plantae

14) Which of these provides evidence of the common ancestry of all life?      14) ______
A) structure of cilia
B) near universality of the genetic code
C) structure of chloroplasts
D) ubiquitous use of catalysts by living systems
E) structure of the nucleus

15) Which of the following is (are) true of natural selection?      15) ______
A) It involves differential reproductive success.
B) It requires genetic variation, results in descent with modification, and involves differential reproductive success.
C) It results in descent with modification.
D) It requires genetic variation.
E) It results in descent with modification and involves differential reproductive success.

16) Charles Darwin proposed a mechanism for descent with modification that stated that organisms of a particular species are adapted to their environment when they possess      16) ______

A) non-inheritable traits that enhance their reproductive success in the local environment.
B) inheritable traits that enhance their survival and reproductive success in the local environment.
C) inheritable traits that decrease their survival and reproductive success in the local environment.
D) non-inheritable traits that enhance their survival in the local environment.
E) non-inheritable traits that enhance their survival and reproductive success in the local environment.

17) Which of these individuals is likely to be most successful in an evolutionary sense?      17) ______
A) a reproductively sterile individual who never falls ill
B) an organism that dies after five days of life but leaves 10 offspring, all of whom survive to reproduce
C) an organism that lives 100 years and leaves two offspring, both of whom survive to reproduce
D) a female who mates with 20 males and produces one offspring that lives to reproduce
E) a male who mates with 20 females and fathers one offspring

18) In a hypothetical world, every 50 years people over 6 feet tall are eliminated from the population before they reproduce. Based on your knowledge of natural selection, you would predict that the average height of the human population will      18) ______

A) rapidly decline.
B) rapidly increase.
C) gradually decline.
D) gradually increase.
E) remain unchanged.

19) Through time, the lineage that led to modern whales shows a change from four-limbed land animals to aquatic animals with two limbs that function as flippers. This change is best explained by      19) ______

A) creationism.
B) natural philosophy.
C) the hierarchy of the biological organization of life.
D) natural selection.
E) feedback inhibition.

20) What is the major difference between a kingdom and a domain?      20) ______
A) All eukarya belong to one domain.
B) A kingdom can include several subgroups known as domains.
C) Only organisms that produce their own food belong to one of the domains.
D) The importance of fungi has led scientists to make them the whole of one domain.
E) All prokaryotes belong to one domain.

21) Which of the following best describes what occurred after the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species?      21) ______

A) The book received little attention except from a small scientific community.
B) The book was widely discussed and disseminated.
C) The book was banned from schools.
D) The book was discredited by most scientists.
E) The book's authorship was disputed.

22) Why is Darwin considered original in his thinking?      22) ______
A) He provided examples of organisms that had evolved over time.
B) He proposed the mechanism that explained how evolution takes place.
C) He demonstrated that evolution is continuing to occur now.
D) He observed that organisms produce large numbers of offspring.
E) He described the relationship between genes and evolution.

23) Darwin's finches, collected from the Galápagos Islands, illustrate which of the following?      23) ______
A) adaptive radiation
B) vestigial anatomic structures
C) the accuracy of the fossil record
D) mutation frequency
E) ancestors from different regions

24) Which of the following categories of organisms is least likely to be revised?      24) ______
A) species      B) kingdom      C) order      D) phylum      E) class

25) What is the major distinguishing characteristic of fungi?      25) ______
A) being sedentary
B) gaining nutrition through ingestion
C) being prokaryotic
D) absorbing dissolved nutrients
E) being decomposers of dead organisms

26) What are archaea?      26) ______
A) Primitive protist-like creatures possessing fewer than two chromosomes per cell.
B) Organisms that are adapted to high temperature environments, such as in volcanic springs.
C) Single-celled organisms that are killed by the application of antibiotics at certain concentrations.
D) Bacteria-like organisms that can live only in extreme salt environments.
E) Prokaryotes characterized as extremophiles that share some bacterial and some eukaryotic traits.

27) According to Darwinian theory, which of the following exhibits the greatest fitness for evolutionary success?      27) ______

A) the organism that produces its own nutrients most efficiently
B) the species with the longest life
C) the community of organisms that is capable of living in the most nutrient-poor biome
D) the phylum with members that occupy the greatest number of habitats
E) the individuals within a population that have the greatest reproductive success

28) Similarities and differences among/between life-forms over time are most efficiently recorded by scientists in which field(s) of study?      28) ______

A) paleontology, anatomy, and taxonomy
B) paleontology and anatomy
C) paleontology
D) paleontology, anatomy, taxonomy, genetics, and ecology
E) paleontology, anatomy, taxonomy, and genetics

29) Why is the theme of evolution considered to be the core theme of biology by biologists?      29) ______
A) Since it cannot be proven, biologists will be able to study evolutionary possibilities for many years.
B) It provides a framework within which all biological investigation makes sense.
C) It is recognized as the core theme of biology by organizations such as the National Science Foundation.
D) Controversy about this theory provides a basis for a great deal of experimental research.
E) Biologists do not subscribe to alternative models.

30) The method of scientific inquiry that describes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and the analysis of data is known as      30) ______

A) quantitative science.
B) discovery science.
C) hypothesis-based science.
D) experimental science.
E) qualitative science.

31) Collecting data based on observation is an example of ________; analyzing this data to reach a conclusion is an example of ________ reasoning.      31) ______

A) hypothesis-based science; deductive
B) hypothesis-based science; inductive
C) descriptive science; deductive
D) the process of science; deductive
E) discovery science; inductive

32) When applying the process of science, which of these is tested?      32) ______
A) a hypothesis
B) a question
C) an observation
D) a result
E) a prediction

33) A controlled experiment is one in which      33) ______
A) there are at least two groups, one of which does not receive the experimental treatment.
B) the experiment is repeated many times to ensure that the results are accurate.
C) there are at least two groups, one differing from the other by two or more variables.
D) there is one group for which the scientist controls all variables.
E) the experiment proceeds at a slow pace to guarantee that the scientist can carefully observe all reactions and process all experimental data.

34) Why is it important that an experiment include a control group?      34) ______
A) Without a control group, there is no basis for knowing if a particular result is due to the variable being tested.
B) A control group assures that an experiment will be repeatable.
C) The control group provides a reserve of experimental subjects.
D) A control group is required for the development of an "If…then" statement.
E) The control group is the group that the researcher is in control of, the group in which the researcher predetermines the results.

35) The application of scientific knowledge for some specific purpose is known as      35) ______
A) anthropologic science.
B) technology.
C) deductive science.
D) inductive science.
E) pure science.

36) Which of the following are qualities of any good scientific hypothesis?
I.    It is testable.
II.    It is falsifiable.
III.    It produces quantitative data.
IV.    It produces results that can be replicated.      36) ______

A) I only      B) II only      C) III only      D) I and II      E) III and IV

37) When a hypothesis cannot be written in an "If…then" format, what does this mean?      37) ______
A) It cannot be testable.
B) It cannot be a scientific hypothesis.
C) It does not represent deductive reasoning.
D) The hypothesizer does not have sufficient information.
E) The subject cannot be explored scientifically.

38) In presenting data that result from an experiment, a group of students show that most of their measurements fall on a straight diagonal line on their graph. However, two of their data points are "outliers" and fall far to one side of the expected relationship. What should they do?      38) ______

A) Average several trials and therefore rule out the improbable results.
B) Change the details of the experiment until they can obtain the expected results.
C) Show all results obtained and then try to explore the reason(s) for these outliers.
D) Throw out this set of data and try again.
E) Do not show these points but write a footnote that the graph represents the correct data.

39) Which of the following is the best description of a control for an experiment?      39) ______
A) The control group is kept in an unchanging environment.
B) The control is left alone by the experimenters.
C) Only the experimental group is tested or measured.
D) The control group is matched with the experimental group except for the one experimental variable.
E) The control group is exposed to only one variable rather than several.

40) Given the cooperativity of science, which of the following is most likely to result in an investigator being intellectually looked down upon by other scientists?      40) ______

A) Spending most of a lifetime investigating a small and seemingly unimportant organism.
B) Making money as the result of studies in which a new medication is discovered.
C) Being found to have falsified or created data to better fit a hypothesis.
D) Getting negative results from the same set of experiments.
E) Doing meticulous experiments that show data that contradict what has been previously reported by the scientific community.

41) Which of these is an example of inductive reasoning?      41) ______
A) Hundreds of individuals of a species have been observed and all are photosynthetic; therefore, the species is photosynthetic.
B) If two species are members of the same genus, they are more alike than each of them could be to a different genus.
C) If horses are always found grazing on grass, they can be only herbivores and not omnivores.
D) If protists are all single-celled, then they are incapable of aggregating.
E) These organisms live in sunny parts of this area so they are able to photosynthesize.
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